Range of Motion offers Exercise Physiologist designed one-on-one exercise sessions for individuals with this condition. Book a complimentary consultation or contact us to find out more.

The information is intended to inform and educate and is not a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional.

Based on guidelines provided by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Condition Overview:

Type two diabetes is a chronic condition characterised by a relative deficiency of insulin, resulting in an inability to control blood glucose levels – hyperglycaemia. This relative deficiency may be caused by insulin resistance in the muscle cells, or defective insulin secretion by the pancreas.

The process leading to type two diabetes is complex, and can involve the following steps:

  1. Increased levels of fat in blood.
  2. Muscle resistant to insulin (takes glucose out of blood).
  3. Liver produces more insulin to compensate.
  4. Too much insulin becomes toxic.
  5. Body unable to produce further insulin.
  6. Lose ability to control blood sugar levels.

As apparent in the first step in this process, obesity is highly linked with type two diabetes, and the conditions often occur simultaneously.

Short Term Response to Exercise:

Due to the imbalance between glucose production and utilisation exercise can lead to an impaired ability to control blood glucose levels. Short term effects on the exercise response are determined by the following:

  • Blood glucose lowering medication.
  • Timing of medication.
  • Pre-exercise blood glucose levels.
  • Pre, during and post exercise nutritional intake.
  • Presence of diabetes complications.
  • Frequency, intensity, time and type of exercise completed.

Long Term Response to Exercise:

The effect of exercise on blood glucose levels, and therefore type two diabetes as a whole is considerable. Benefits include:

  • The prevention of the disease in individuals currently undiagnosed.
  • Improvement in the control of blood glucose levels.
  • Improved insulin sensitivity, leading to a reduced requirement for insulin based medication.
  • Reduction in body fat resulting in increased insulin sensitivity.
  • Reduced chance of developing cardiovascular disease, a common partner to diabetes.
  • Stress reduction, therefore balancing hormone levels and contributing to healthy blood glucose levels.

Condition Management:

In addition to exercise, dietary management is often coupled with medication (insulin) to increase control over blood sugar levels.

The treatment of any associated cardiovascular disease will also reduce complications associated with the condition.

Range of Motion’s Treatment Methodologies:

Range of Motion designs specific exercise programs unique to the individual based on The Range of Motion Model of Health. Modifications to this basic framework are made based on the specific recommendations outlined below.

Aerobic Exercise:

  • 50-90% max heart rate (though rate of perceived exertion should be used for those with medication altered heart rates).
  • Four to seven days per week.
  • 20 to 60 minutes per session.

Anaerobic Exercise:

  • High intensity intervals.


  • High repetition low load for untrained individuals.
  • Progress to high load low repetition for trained individuals.


  • Not to discomfort.
  • 20 seconds per stretch.
  • Three days per week.

Visit Diabetes Australia

Book a complimentary consultation or contact us to find out more.

Hornsby, W. G., Albright, A. L., (2003). Diabetes. In: Durstine, J. L., Moore, G. E. (2003), ACSM’s Exercise Management for Persons with Chronic Diseases and Disabilities 2nd Ed. (pp 133-141) American College of Sports Medicine, Human Kinetics.